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12.1 Introduction

12.1.1 Although the main responsibility for the provision of transport services and the maintenance and improvement of the transport infrastructure within Ryedale lie with agencies such as North Yorkshire County Council, the Department of Transport and the various public transport operators, the District Council is, nevertheless, keen to play a significant role in influencing transportation issues through the land use policies of this Local Plan.

12.1.2 Within the UK every year, the car produces four times its own weight in carbon dioxide - the main greenhouse gas. Road transport is estimated to produce 90 per cent of the carbon monoxide in the atmosphere and over 50 per cent of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. Black smoke emissions, mainly from vehicle exhausts, are on the increase whilst carbon monoxide levels are also rising.

12.1.3 National Policy Guidance makes clear the Government's intention to reduce CO2 emissions. To this end, it advises that Local Planning Authorities should, through their land use policies, seek to reduce growth in the length and number of motorised journeys, encourage alternative means of travel which have less environmental impact and hence reduce reliance on the use of the private car.

12.1.4 The Government White Paper on the Future of Transport was published in 1998. This aims to reduce traffic growth and the detrimental effect of road traffic on health, the environment, and the economy through the implementation of an integrated transport policy. In particular the White Paper places great emphasis on increasing the opportunities to travel by rail, bus, foot or cycle, whilst reducing dependence on the private motor vehicle. The passing of the Road Traffic Reduction (National Targets) Act 1998 has also introduced the principle of road traffic reduction targets and assessments, again with the aim of reducing the environmental, social and economic impacts of road traffic.

12.1.5 The North Yorkshire County Structure Plan defines the Primary Road network within the Plan as being:

A64   York to Scarborough
A166   York to Bridlington
A170   Thirsk to Scarborough

In addition, there are a number of minor routes which, due to the rural nature of the District and its dispersed settlement pattern, are important components of the road network within the Plan area: -

A169  Malton-Whitby
B1248  Norton-Beverley-Driffield-Hull
B1249  Staxton-Driffield
B1257  Malton-Sproxton
B1258  Knapton-Ebberston-Snainton
B1363  York-Oswaldkirk
C20  Amotherby-Kirkbymoorside
C88  Oswaldkirk-Coxwold
C90  Hovingham-Strensall
C91  Crambeck-Sheriff Hutton-Easingwold
C177  Norton-Stamford Bridge
C356  Duggleby-Foxholes-Bridlington

These routes, together with the primary road network, are shown on Fig 12.1, below.

12.1.6 Car ownership levels within the District are much higher than national and regional levels, reflecting not only the economic situation but also a degree of necessity. Ryedale contains only one railway line (York-Scarborough) and there is only one station within the District (at Malton). The Ryedale Transport Study (see Paragraph 12.7.2) found that whilst there were reasonable bus services along the A64 and parts of the A170, there were virtually no services in other parts of the District such as the Wolds, to the north of the A170, and in the area between Malton and Kirkbymoorside. This situation, linked with the fact that the population of the District is dispersed over a very wide area in many small settlements, means that the vast majority of journeys in Ryedale are made by private motor vehicle.

12.1.7 The public rights of way network in the Plan area is generally good although some routes on the Wolds are yet to be registered and in certain areas the bridleway network is very limited. Furthermore, many of the rural parts of the District are reasonably suitable for cycling. However the roads into the main service and employment centres in the Plan area and the main roads through the Market Towns are rarely conducive to either walking or cycling.

12.1.8 Each year North Yorkshire County Council produces a Transport Policies and Programme (TPP) for submission to the Government in pursuance of capital resources for highway and transport projects. The document sets out a forward programme for highway schemes. The details, schemes, policies and proposals it includes must be consistent with the County Structure Plan, and are set within the framework of Structure Plan policies. The policies in this Chapter have been formulated on the basis of the 1999/2000 TPP.






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12.2 Objectives

12.2.1 The policies for transport have the following main objectives:-


To reduce the amount of CO2 and other environmentally harmful emissions that are produced by motor vehicles in Ryedale.

To encourage the use of more energy efficient and less polluting forms of transport than the private motor vehicle.

As a consultee, to only support proposals for new road construction or the improvements to existing roads where they can be justified and where they are designed to have the minimum adverse effect upon the amenities of local residents; the environment; and the needs of those travelling by means other than the private motor vehicle.

To reduce the adverse impacts of motor traffic on both public safety and amenity and on the local environment, and to seek to improve and extend facilities for pedestrians, cyclists and horse riders.
To protect and improve safety levels for all transport users.

To encourage the provision of a convenient and usable public transport system throughout the District.
To make adequate provision for car and cycle parking, where appropriate.
To strictly limit new development associated with roads.



 Fig 12.1 The principle road network in the Plan area







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12.3.1 New roads and road improvements outside the Howardian Hills AONB With the exception of Trunk Roads, which are the responsibility of the Department of Transport, North Yorkshire County Council, as the Local Highway Authority, is responsible for the majority of new road proposals and road improvements that are likely to take place within the District during the Plan period. It is widely believed that motor traffic levels increase to take up the spare capacity that road improvements bring about. In addition, new roads can, potentially, have a significant impact upon the landscape, the amenities of nearby residents, farmland and sites of nature conservation and historic importance. Consequently it is Government policy to use traffic management measures to improve safety and to reduce the impact of traffic wherever possible. However, it is unquestionable that, in certain parts of the District, there are enormous environmental, economic and safety problems being caused at the local level through the amounts and/or nature of vehicular traffic using the area. This is certainly the case along parts of the A64 which has a poor safety record and severely detracts from the character of many of the settlements through which it passes in particular the villages of Rillington and Sherburn. Consequently, the District Council considers that, in such circumstances, it is justifiable to provide new or improved sections of road to overcome such problems. In Malton and Norton, traffic movements between the two towns have almost reached the pre-Malton by-pass levels resulting in severe congestion particularly around the level-crossing area and the Butcher Corner traffic lights. In 1992, the District Council co-funded with the County Council a study of the traffic problems associated with the Norton Grove Industrial Estate in the wider Malton-Norton context. The Study recommended a new road between Norton Grove and Scarborough Road (which was completed in 1995) and identified, in the longer term, the need for an outer link between Scarborough Road and Beverley Road. In addition to the creation of Westfield Way, improvements to the junction of the B1248 Scarborough Road with the A64 at the Brambling Fields have been carried out to allow traffic to access the westbound carriageway of the trunk road and so avoid travelling through the central areas of Malton and Norton. However, the District Council will continue to press for a further upgrading of this junction to allow eastbound traffic to leave the A64 at this point and so further reduce congestion through central Malton and Norton. Pickering also suffers from severe congestion particularly during the summer months and other peak holiday periods. A proposed by-pass for the town is on the County Council's Reserve List of highway schemes but it is not anticipated that this scheme will be started within the Plan period. Whilst the District Council is neither the decision-making body nor implementing agency for the majority of road schemes, as a consultee, the District Council is keen to ensure that any road proposals that do come forward are necessary and are designed to minimise their adverse impact upon the environment and the amenities of the population of the Plan area. Where appropriate, the District Council will seek financial contributions from developers towards overcoming localised transportation problems within the Local Plan area. In order to minimise the impact of any road proposals, it is vital that they are designed to make the best use of existing landscape contours and features. An extensive and integrated landscaping scheme is also of paramount importance and should incorporate native trees and shrubs, taking care to integrate this with the surrounding landscape. Two particular problems of new and improved roads are the detrimental effects they can have on modes of transport other than the private motor vehicle and also the pressure for new development in inappropriate locations that they can bring. Consequently, it is important that the needs of cyclists and public transport users are fully accounted for, if necessary at the expense of those travelling by private motor vehicles. New roads must also make appropriate provisions for pedestrians and horse riders. Also, it may be necessary to locate the route so as to limit pressure for unrelated new development. New roads and improved roads can have significant environmental implications which require full and detailed consideration. Many highway or road improvement schemes will be subjected to a formal Environmental Assessment, particularly if they involve works of over 10 km in length, pass through or within 100 metres of an SSSI or a Conservation Area, pass within 100 metres of 1500 dwellings, or pass through an AONB.







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Policy T1 - New roads and road improvements outside the Howardian Hills AONB

Outside the Howardian Hills AONB, the District Council will only support proposals for new roads and other improvements to the road network which:-

(i) Improve highway safety and/or bring about a net environmental and economic benefit;

(ii) Produce environmental and/or safety benefits which could not reasonably be achieved through traffic management measures alone;

(iii) Minimise adverse effects on residential amenities, settlements and their setting and the character and appearance of the countryside;

(iv) Avoid, where possible, the best and most versatile agricultural land and the unnecessary fragmentation of farms;

(v) Have no material adverse impact on sites of nature conservation value, archaeological or historic importance, or any other sites protected for their special qualities through the policies of this Plan;

(vi) Incorporate an integral and extensive landscape scheme to maintain and, wherever possible, improve environmental standards;

(vii) Minimise adverse effects on public rights of way and ensure that the needs of those travelling by means other than the private motor vehicle are not materially adversely affected and, wherever possible, are improved by the proposal;

(viii) Be routed so as to minimise pressure for new development;

(ix) Incorporate suitable road-crossing measures for wildlife where necessary.

Where appropriate, a formal Environmental Impact Assessment will be requested in order to fully assess the proposal.


12.3.2 New roads and road improvements in the Howardian Hills AONB New trunk and primary roads within the AONB are likely to be particularly damaging to its landscape character and to nature conservation. In addition, improved road access could result in an increase in visitor numbers detracting from the peacefulness essential to the character of the area. The Government's policy is to keep new roads away from protected areas such as AONBs. Widening and alterations of existing roads and the creation of new minor access roads within the AONB can also be damaging. The minor road network of the Howardian Hills has historic origins and is integral to

the landscape character of the area. When improvements are necessary, it is essential that works are in sympathy with the landscape or settlement and the existing character of the road is retained. Whilst the District Council is the determining authority for proposals to create minor new access roads, it is neither the decision-making body nor the implementing agency for proposals to create new trunk or primary roads, or to widen or alter existing roads. However, in its role as consultee, the District Council will aim to safeguard the landscape of the Howardian Hills AONB.






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Policy T2 - New roads and road improvements outside the Howardian Hills AONB

Within the Howardian Hills AONB, the District Council will, as the determining Authority or in its role as consultee:-

(i) Strongly oppose new trunk and primary roads;

(ii) Carefully examine new proposals to widen or alter existing roads or to create minor access roads to ensure that they: are necessary; would not lead to significant increases in speed or traffic flow; would not materially adversely affect the needs of those travelling by means other than the private motor vehicle; and would minimise damage to the environment;

(iii) Seek to retain the irregular pattern and the character of the minor road network.

Proposals for new trunk or primary roads outside the AONB will be opposed where they would significantly detract from the setting of the Howardian Hills AONB.



12.4.1 Access to the Local Highway Network New development can have a substantial effect on the local highway network. Some proposals are not acceptable because the capacity or the design of the surrounding roads make them incapable of accommodating the traffic that the development would generate. In others, the proposed access to and from the highway network may be unacceptable. The District Council, therefore, will take advice from the Highway Authority (and, where necessary, a highway consultant) on such matters and will refuse applications that are likely to lead to unacceptable levels of congestion or disturbance or have an adverse effect upon road safety. Generally, major traffic generators should be located close to the primary road network which they should access via an existing

junction that has sufficient capacity to accommodate the traffic likely to be generated by the development (see Policy T4). Where the highway objections to a development could be overcome through improvement to existing roads or footpaths or through the provision of new facilities, then these should be developer-funded and carried out before the actual development takes place. Where such improvements are required, it will clearly be necessary to avoid areas that are protected under other Policies in this Plan (such as sites of nature conservation interest, archaeological significance, visual importance etc). Furthermore, it is important to avoid highway improvements that are detrimental to the rural character of the area or that would affect pedestrian or cyclist safety.






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 Policy T3 - Access to the local highway network

All new development should be served by a local road network that can satisfactorily accommodate the traffic it will generate.

Proposals that would be unacceptably detrimental to road safety, public amenity or road congestion levels by virtue of the traffic they will generate and/or their access point with the highway network will not be permitted.

Where highway objections can be overcome through off-site improvement works, these must:-

(i) Be developer funded,

(ii) Be completed before use of the development commences,

(iii) Not adversely affect sites or areas protected through other policies contained in this Local Plan,

(iv) Not be detrimental to the rural character of the District,

(v) Not unacceptably prejudice the safety of cyclists or pedestrians.


12.4.2 Formation of new accesses onto `A' Roads Within the Plan area, the A64, A166 and A170 form part of the primary road network. The A64 is also a Trunk Road. The A169, whilst not a primary route, is a strategic route. These roads, therefore, have a major role in linking urban centres and employment areas in North Yorkshire and the Trunk roads in particular, have a key role in providing for the safe and expeditious movement of long-distance through-traffic. Because of the function of these roads and the fact that many motor accidents are caused by turning movements, it is vital that new accesses onto such roads are strictly controlled. A further consideration is that the extent of visibility splays required in connection with any new access on to an `A' road makes the effective screening of any new development extremely difficult to achieve. PPG13 advises that direct accesses on to primary routes should be avoided if at all possible. However, it is appropriate to differentiate between certain proposals on the basis of their location, for example, proposals which would be acceptable within a built-up area with a speed limit of 40 mph or less may be entirely unacceptable alongside fast stretches of rural `A' roads where a particularly strict policy is required. In considering a proposal that requires a new access onto an `A' road or that would generate a material increase in traffic via an existing access onto an `A' road, the District Council will have close regard to the

views of the Department of Transport, Local Government and the Regions (for development affecting the A64) or North Yorkshire County Council as the Highway Authority (for other `A' roads). The Department of Transport, Local Government and the Regions has powers to direct the Local Planning Authority to refuse applications where they affect a Trunk Road, whereas the Highway Authority can merely recommend refusal. When the highway objections to a proposal could be overcome through improvement to the existing or proposed highway network, and where this can be done without seriously detracting from the character of the area, it is likely that developers will be required to enter into a legal agreement requiring any necessary works to be funded and carried out by the developer before the development commences. This will certainly be the case with schemes which affect a trunk road, when development will only be permitted to take place once the highway works that are considered necessary and acceptable have been carried out. Furthermore, the works carried out will need to accommodate both the traffic generated by the development, together with all other traffic forward to the design year (normally 15 years from first opening of the development). However, subject to these conditions and requirements, the Highways Agency have advised that they do not expect to object to development consistent with the proposals in the Local Plan.







Transport (T) Where appropriate, prospective developers may be required to carry out a traffic impact assessment

of the likely implications of their proposed developments on the road network.


Policy T4 - Accesses onto `A' roads

Development which requires the creation of a new access, or that will materially intensify the use of an existing access, onto an `A' road (including trunk roads) will only be permitted where:-

(i) It is located within a built-up area where speed limits are 40 mph or below, and it would not interfere with the free flow of traffic on the `A' road or create conditions prejudicial to highway safety; or

(ii) It is located outside a built-up area, where speed limits are above 40 mph, and it would be possible and appropriate to improve the highway to accommodate the traffic generated by the development such that it would not impede the flow or safety of traffic on the open highway.

Improvements to the highway network in order to comply with the above criteria will only be permitted where these improvements would not detract from the character and appearance of the area. In all situations where it is considered appropriate and necessary to carry out improvements to the highway network, these must be fully funded by the developer and be completed before the development takes place.


12.4.3 Innovative road layouts and highway designs There is a well-recognised style of modern road layout, primarily associated with housing estates, that often exacerbates the impact of the development on its locality through its insensitive design. Whilst the safety of both pedestrians and road users must be paramount, it is possible using traffic-calming measures and careful design to produce road

layouts that do not give entire priority to the needs of car users. Such designs are particularly important in Conservation Areas and in the vicinity of Listed Buildings which were largely built before the advent of the car. Guidance on this and other highway design matters is included in the North Yorkshire County Council and the District Council's Residential Highway Design Guide.

Policy T5 - Innovative road layouts

Within new development, the use of innovative road layouts and highway designs that reflect the historical character of the area will generally be supported where appropriate and where compatible with road safety considerations.



12.5.1 Although North Yorkshire County Council, as the Highway Authority, is responsible for traffic management within Ryedale, the District Council is fully aware of the problems that traffic movements can cause. These often include localised `black spots' for air and noise pollution, number and severity of accidents, congestion levels and general environmental degradation.

12.5.2 Traffic-calming involves a number of measures including pavement widening, road humps, speed tables, narrowings, re-paving, chicanes, weight and width restrictions and the blocking of minor road junctions. These measures generally slow down and/or re-route motor traffic. They often lead to great improvements in the urban street environment for non-motor users, and are particularly helpful in sensitive locations such as






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residential areas and near to schools. In addition, calming measures can also be introduced on rural roads where particular problems occur.

12.5.3 The District Council will, where appropriate, require traffic-calming measures in new residential developments (dependent on the size of the proposal) and will encourage the County Council to implement traffic management measures, including traffic calming, particularly in residential areas and near to schools and other public and educational areas. Where appropriate,

the District Council will jointly fund schemes with the Highway Authority.

12.5.4 However, traffic calming measures can be difficult to integrate into an older streetscape and particular care will be required to ensure that any introduced measures reinforce rather than diminish the character of the Conservation Areas and historic streetscapes within the Plan area. The use of traditional materials and devices will be required in such areas if traffic calming measures are to be successfully integrated into the streetscape.


Policy T6 - Traffic management

The District Council will encourage the implementation of appropriate traffic management measures, including traffic calming, to reduce the harmful effects of traffic in residential areas, near to schools and other public and educational facilities, and in rural areas where traffic-related problems occur.

New residential development will, where appropriate, be required to incorporate traffic calming measures to reduce traffic speed, enhance the street environment and provide safe conditions for cyclists and pedestrians.



12.6.1 It is normally important that new development includes adequate on-site parking facilities. This is to help prevent parking situations which would, through interference with the public highway, compromise the free flow of traffic and/or the safety of other road users. On-street parking can also detract from the quality of the environment. In order to assess the level of parking required, the District Council will be guided by relevant advice in PPG13 `Transport' 2001 (particularly Annex D) and PPG3 `Housing' 2000, by policies set out in Regional Planning Guidance for Yorkshire and the Humber and by North Yorkshire County Council's Parking Design Guide, which has been adopted by this Authority as its own parking standards. The Guide sets out parking requirements for various types of development and is reproduced in Appendix 9. However, the Parking Design Guide is currently being reviewed by the County Council in order to better reflect Government guidance and to introduce cycle parking standards, town centre parking control zones and advice on commuted payments. It is expected that the revised Design Guide will be available in late 2001, when it is anticipated that the District Council will adopt the revised standards, including maximum figures for parking provision and specific cycle parking standards, as its own.

12.6.2 However, in certain circumstances, it will be appropriate to relax parking standards when their imposition would prejudice an otherwise acceptable scheme. Whilst the degree of relaxation will vary according to the circumstances of each case, such situations would include schemes for the re-use of a Listed Building or development within a Conservation Area where rigid imposition of the parking standards may prejudice the scheme or adversely affect the character or appearance of the buildings. Additionally, there are likely to be circumstances where, in order to enable the development of a scheme which would allow the residential use of upper floors within the town centres, the car parking standards should be relaxed. Similarly it will be appropriate to relax parking standards in order to allow quality and affordable high density development to proceed in areas of good access to other means of travel. Also schemes which do not fully meet parking standards but which would significantly enhance the appearance and character of an area would generally merit support. Proposals for a change of use that would not meet parking standards for that use, but which did not exceed the parking requirements of the previous use will also be supported where it can be demonstrated that the previous under-provision of parking did not materially affect safety levels, traffic flows, residential amenity and environmental quality.






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12.6.3 In order to encourage cycling as a means of transport in the Plan area, it is vital that facilities for cyclists are also included in new development. In particular, it is important to provide cycle parking facilities which are both secure and convenient. Clearly, the amount and type of provision will vary with the type and scale of development, however, the District Council is particularly keen to ensure the availability of cycle parking facilities at workplaces, retail centres, public transport interchanges and public and education facilities. In appropriate amenities of local residents.

circumstances, developers will also be expected to make provision for the parking of motorcycles.

12.6.4 The District Council will generally support measures by employers to reduce 1 employee 1 car commuting and to encourage methods of travel to work other than the individual use of the private car. Wherever possible, the District Council will work with employers to increase the attractiveness of alternative means of travel to work, including cycling and car sharing and will aim to assist with the implementation of any "green commuter plans" produced by employers.


Policy T7 - Parking

Proposals for new development, redevelopment and changes of use (other than those specific situations outlined below) will be required to make adequate provision for off-street parking on or near the site in general accordance with the parking standards included in Appendix 9.

These standards will, however, be relaxed when their imposition would prejudice an otherwise acceptable scheme which:-

(i) Would secure the future of a listed or other important building, or

(ii) Would make a positive contribution to the appearance and character of a Conservation Area, or

(iii) Involves the residential use of upper floors in town centres (in accordance with Policy H8), or

(iv) Would provide quality and affordable high density residential development in areas of good access to other means of travel than the private vehicle, or

(v) Would significantly enhance the character and appearance of the local environment, or

(vi) Involves a change of use that would not exceed the parking requirements of the previous use, provided that it can be demonstrated that the previous under-provision of parking did not materially impair or detract from safety levels, traffic flow, residential amenity and environmental quality.

Wherever necessary, secure and convenient cycle parking facilities must be provided of an amount and type commensurate with the size and nature of the proposed development. In appropriate circumstances, adequate provision should be made for the parking of motorcycles.







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12.7.1 The transport problems in rural areas have been recognised for many years. The significant growth in car ownership and use over the last 20 years has created an increasingly polarised society. For most residents of rural areas, transport is not a concern since a car is always or often available. There remains, however, a significant minority for whom mobility is a serious problem. Exacerbating the problems faced by those dependent on public and community transport is the trend towards centralisation of services into larger settlements.

12.7.2 In 1992, the District Council part-funded a study of rural transport provision and the travel needs of the population of Ryedale. The Ryedale Transport Study (published in 1993) found that car availability was critical to almost every person's ability to travel around the area. Despite the large number of people who have access to a car, there was a small but significant need/latent demand for better transport provision. This need was greatest amongst people with limited car availability, young adults, women of working age, the elderly and people with mobility impairment. The most significant problem areas in terms of inadequate provision were found to be the Wolds, the area to the north of the A170 (on the edge of the Moors) and the area between Malton and Kirkbymoorside (to the west of the A169). The Study suggested a number of measures to tackle the problems including the extension of the post-bus service on the Wolds, the creation of a Dial-a-Ride scheme, and a Malton-based Community Bus. It also proposed the creation of a Rural Transport Broker's post and improved publicity initiatives.

12.7.3 A Rural Transport Broker was appointed in August 1996 with the aim of improving public transport provision in the Ryedale/Scarborough area. The task of the Broker is to identify demands for transport which are currently unmet, to match current needs with provision at an economic cost, and to ensure that information on community transport services is available throughout the area.

12.7.4 In addition to support for certain public transport services, the District Council has a vital role in ensuring that major new development makes sufficient provision for use by public transport services. Therefore, all major new residential, industrial and commercial development will be required to have a road layout which readily assists the extension of the public transport network into the new development. This will include road loops, bus stop facilities and also the provision of safe and convenient footpaths to the public transport access points from the main areas of activity on the site.

12.7.5 Although Ryedale only has one network railway station (at Malton), this provides good links to York, Scarborough, Leeds and Manchester and also to London and Newcastle, via the east coast main line.

12.7.6 The station also has the added benefit of being directly adjacent to the Malton bus station. The District Council is anxious to maximise use of the rail network as alternative to road transport and will generally support measures to that end, including measures to integrate bus services with train arrival and departure times.

12.7.7 Proposals to further opportunities for rail travel, including the re-opening of railway stations and the provision of freight transfer facilities, will be encouraged, whilst any proposals which would detract from current rail service provision, or which would sever the rail-bus link in Malton, will be strongly opposed.

12.7.8 The parking standards referred to in Policy T7 make provision for commuted payments to be made where appropriate, in lieu of providing on-site parking facilities. In certain circumstances these payments may then be used to fund or improve public transport services in the immediate locality of the development concerned, as is discussed in PPG13. In such cases the District Council will support those measures which offer the most potential for a reduction in private vehicle use or which provide a public transport service to previously under served areas.







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Policy T8 - Public transport and rail services

The District Council will continue to encourage and support proposals for improvements to public transport and rail services in the Plan area. To this end the District Council will:-

(i) Encourage and support measures to investigate the practicability of establishing innovative solutions to enhance public transport and rail service provision and to help meet a greater proportion of rural transport needs, particularly within the Wolds, the Fringe of the Moors, and between Malton and Kirkbymoorside;

(ii) Support mechanisms and initiatives to identify areas of need and the means by which these needs might be met;

(iii) Not permit development which would be likely to adversely affect the level of, or prevent improvement to, public transport and rail service provision;

(iv) Ensure that, where practicable, provision is made in the layout and design of major new developments for the easy access of public transport services in order that the new development can be conveniently assimilated into the local public transport network;

(v) Where appropriate, utilise commuted payments made in lieu of on-site parking (in accordance with the standards set out in Appendix 9) to fund measures which assist public transport services in the immediate locality of the development concerned.



12.8.1 In 1996 the (then) Department of Transport published the National Cycling Strategy which was fully endorsed by the 1998 Government White Paper on the Future of Transport. The central target of this strategy is to achieve a doubling (on 1996 figures) of cycle use in the UK by 2002 and a further doubling by 2012. The implementation of the National Cycling Strategy depends upon an increased level of co-operation between organisations in the public, commercial and voluntary sectors. North Yorkshire County Council as the Highway Authority for all non trunk roads in the County will take the leading role in the implementation of the National Cycling Strategy in the County. However, the District Council is keen to work with the County Council, adjacent authorities and the voluntary sector on the formation and implementation of a cycling strategy that covers the Local Plan area.

12.8.2 In June 1999 North Yorkshire County Council adopted the North Yorkshire Cycling Strategy. The District Council, adjacent authorities and the voluntary sector all contributed to the preparation of the County Council-led Strategy. The Strategy sets out objectives, policies and targets for encouraging cycling and improving conditions for existing cyclists in North

Yorkshire. A key element of the Strategy is to develop and implement cycling plans for the major market towns and rural areas within North Yorkshire.

12.8.3 The District Council believes that cycling is an increasingly important transport mode and is keen to encourage measures which will make cycling more attractive. Cycling is energy-efficient, healthy and environmentally friendly and avoids the congestion, pollution and environmental damage that are intrinsic to the use of motor vehicles. It is particularly advantageous for short journeys when it is often faster than the car or bus and where cars are particularly serious polluters.

12.8.4 However, cyclists are perhaps the most vulnerable of road users and often suffer from unsatisfactory and/or unsuitable road conditions. It is important, therefore, to enhance the safety and comfort of cyclists to make cycling more popular in Ryedale. Policy T7, above, requires secure and convenient provision to be made for cycle parking, wherever necessary, within new developments and it is made clear, in Policy T1, that the Council will not support new road schemes that would be likely to prejudice the needs of cyclists.






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12.8.5 However, the current road network in Ryedale does not, in itself, provide a sufficiently safe and convenient facility to allow the use of cycling as a travel form in the District to be maximised. It is important, therefore, that the needs of cyclists should be fully accounted for in all new development so that every suitable opportunity for improving the cycle route network is realised. This is likely to involve, where appropriate, the provision of joint or segregated routes for cyclists within new residential, commercial, industrial and retail development and also at any new public facilities. It will be particularly important to provide safe and convenient integration with any existing or planned cycle network in the vicinity of development proposals.

12.8.6 To implement the North Yorkshire Cycling Strategy, the District Council will work with North Yorkshire County Council, voluntary groups and local people to prepare cycling studies for each of the Market Towns, together with selected rural areas. These studies

will effectively appraise current and potential cycle use in order that, wherever appropriate, a cycling plan can then be prepared which sets out a programme of action to maximise cycle use in that area. Such action will include, where appropriate, giving a higher priority to cyclists on the existing road network, in addition to the provision of improved cycle facilities.

12.8.7 In particular, the District Council wishes to secure routes which serve utility cycling trips, including safe routes to school, and routes linking residential areas, major employers, retail areas and public transport and leisure facilities. However, the development of routes which link nearby market towns or provide safe routes from surrounding villages to the market towns will also be a priority. The District Council will also continue to work with North Yorkshire County Council, Sustrans, cycling groups and other local authorities to establish cycle routes within the Local Plan area which link with the National Cycle Network.


Policy T9 - Cycling

The District Council will seek to improve the safety, convenience and attractiveness of cycling by:-

(i) Ensuring, where appropriate, that new developments include appropriate measures to make access by cycling, both within the development itself and to the surrounding road and cycle network, safe and convenient;

(ii) Investigating, in conjunction with North Yorkshire County Council, the preparation of Cycle Studies of the Market Towns and rural areas, to form the basis of Cycling Plans for these areas. These Plans will set out detailed proposals to enhance local cycling facilities and, where appropriate, give an increased priority to cyclists on the existing road network. New routes and/or improved facilities between settlements will also be pursued, together with the establishment of links to the National Cycle Network.



12.9.1 As part of its overall aim of reducing the amount and the length of car journeys, the District Council wishes to promote walking as an alternative to the motorcar, particularly for short journeys. Walking is also important in recreational terms and, like cycling and horse riding is beneficial to health.

12.9.2 The North Yorkshire Pedestrian Strategy (adopted by North Yorkshire County Council, the Highway Authority for the Plan area, in July 2000) aims to maximise the role of walking as a form of transport

in the County. Working in partnership with the District Council and other local bodies the County Council aims to implement a suite of measures to promote, and to provide facilities for walking during the period 2001 to 2006.

12.9.3 The Local Highway Authority maintains a definitive map of Public Rights of Way showing footpaths, bridleways and byways open to all traffic in the Plan area. Such Rights of Way are important both within urban areas and in affording better access to the







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countryside. A number of the long-distance Rights of Way in the Plan area have been developed as important routes for walkers (including The Wolds Way and the Cleveland Way National Trails, together with The Minster Way, The Ebor Way, The Centenary Way and The Foss Walk). The District Council will welcome appropriate schemes to extend this high-profile network.

12.9.4 Existing Public Rights of Way in the Plan area will normally be protected from development and the opportunity taken to extend the Rights of Way and permissive footpath network wherever possible. The effect of development on a Public Right of Way is a material planning consideration and the District Council will expect any proposal affecting a Public Right of Way to have taken that effect fully into account. The District Council will not normally permit proposals that would severely detract from the enjoyment of users of the two National Trails that pass through the Local Plan area. Furthermore, in appropriate circumstances, the District Council will consult the relevant National Trail project on applications likely to cause such detrimental effects. Should a Public Right of Way, for safety or other reasons, require diversion, then the needs of the public should be given priority in any new route. Public Rights of Way should always be clearly marked to prevent conflict.

12.9.5 The District Council will also encourage the Highway Authority to improve conditions for pedestrians through the introduction of pedestrian-friendly road crossings, wider footways and vehicle-restricted areas.

12.9.6 The District Council is particularly keen to encourage safe and convenient pedestrian facilities in new development. These facilities should link with the surrounding Rights of Way network and also provide easy access to bus stops and local centres. It is quite acceptable for joint pedestrian/cycling routes to be provided as long as these do not prejudice the needs of either user. In appropriate circumstances walking/cycling/horse-riding routes will be sought. In all cases, it will be vital to maximise the safety of footpath users through a combination of design and lighting.

12.9.7 The District Council is also investigating the potential for creating new joint cycleway/footpath/horse riding facilities along disused railway lines in Ryedale (see Policy T11).

12.9.8 It is considered that such facilities would provide safe, convenient and attractive routes which would be useful not only for recreation but also as a means of reaching work and shopping facilities for those people within and close to the Market Towns.


Policy T10 - Public Rights of Way and pedestrian facilities

The District Council will seek to ensure improvements in the safety, convenience and attractiveness of facilities for pedestrians and in the Public Rights of Way network by:-

(i) Where appropriate, requiring new development to include pedestrian facilities which link to the surrounding Rights of Way network and with routes to local centres and public transport facilities;

(ii) Ensuring that all new pedestrian facilities are designed to encourage walking and to be both safe and convenient;

(iii) In conjunction with North Yorkshire County Council, investigating the possibility of improving existing and creating new facilities for pedestrians, including, where appropriate, combined walking/cycling/horse-riding routes;

(iv) Ensuring that existing public footpaths and bridleways and the enjoyment of them will not be adversely affected by new development, particularly where the Right of Way forms part of a designated National Trail, and that where diversions of Public Rights of Way are proposed, these will only be supported where the alternative route will be equally pleasant and convenient;

(v) Ensuring, wherever appropriate, that adequate provision is made for people with disabilities.







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12.10.1 There are a number of disused railway lines which cross the Plan area. These relatively straight, level routes are located close to centres of population and offer the advantage of being separate from the often busy highway network. These disused lines have the potential for reuse as potential routes for cyclists, walkers and horse riders and, in the longer term, the possibility of being reused for public transport purposes. The District Council is keen to ensure that future development in the vicinity of these lines will not prejudice their eventual reuse for such purposes.

12.10.2 Whilst many sections of trackbed have now been incorporated into adjacent fields, the creation of new cycle/footpath/horse riding routes may be possible. Where new development has blocked the path of the old railway line, it may be possible to create small detours to complete the route. The creation of such routes would not only provide a valuable facility, but

these types of uses would not prejudice the eventual use of these lines for possible public transport use in the longer term. The District Council will encourage assessment of the potential of utilising the following disused railway lines for the formation of new cycle/walking/horse riding routes:-

Norton to Burdale
Malton - Gilling East - Coxwold (as far as the District Boundary)
Ebberston - Pickering - Kirkbymoorside - Helmsley
Helmsley - Cawton (where it links with Malton - Gilling East line)
Pickering - Rillington

12.10.3 Disused railway lines are often important wildlife corridors. It is vital, therefore, that any reuse would not be detrimental to wildlife which often relies on these "green" corridors for habitat.


Policy T11 - Disused railway lines

On the disused railway lines identified on the Proposals Map, development which would prejudice their future use as possible cycle/footpath/horse riding routes or for potential public transport use will not be permitted.

The District Council will encourage assessment of the use, where practicable, of these disused railway lines for the creation of new routes for cyclists, walkers and horse riders and, in the longer term, for their use by public transport. Proposals which would be materially detrimental to wildlife will not be advanced.



12.11.1 As road traffic levels grow, there is likely to be increasing pressure for the development of new roadside facilities such as petrol stations and fast-food restaurants. Without strict control, these urban forms of development can have a significantly adverse impact on the appearance of the countryside. However, the District Council recognises that an adequate level of roadside facilities is required to meet the needs of travellers and to prevent the setting-up of uncontrolled mobile snack bars along the roadside.

12.11.2 In considering applications for new roadside facilities, emphasis will be given to the need for the facility (taking into account the distance between similar facilities), the developer's own assessment of future demand, and the existence of facilities in nearby settlements.

12.11.3 In considering any proposal for roadside services, special attention will be given to their potential visual impact. Sites that are likely to accommodate development with the least detriment to the surrounding landscape will be preferred. The design of the buildings and structures must be of a high standard, ideally reflecting local styles, and be accompanied by an extensive landscaping scheme. It is also vital that the amount and appearance of the signage and illumination is strictly limited. Obviously, the development should not adversely affect any site or area protected for its special qualities through other Policies in this Plan, or have any significant adverse affect on the best and most versatile agricultural land. Furthermore, no new residential development will normally be permitted in conjunction with roadside facilities in the open countryside.







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12.11.4 In order to lessen the impact of new roadside facilities in the countryside, the District Council would prefer the development of key sites (including existing sites which satisfy the criteria of Policy T12) as the focus for a range of activities as opposed to a number of individual sites and accesses.

12.11.5 Other important locational constraints on sites for roadside services include the need to avoid any material adverse impact on the character and setting

of existing settlements or on the amenity of existing residents. PPG6 confirms that it is also important to avoid adverse effects upon existing convenience shops in nearby villages through the introduction of shops ancillary to roadside services. Additionally, proposals will not be permitted if they are likely to adversely affect highway safety or traffic flows.

12.11.6 For the purposes of this Policy, the "Major Road Network" is defined as the A64, A166, A169 and the A170.


Policy T12 - Roadside services

Proposals for new roadside services outside Development Limits defined on the Proposals Map will not be permitted within, or where they would have a material adverse effect upon, the character or appearance of the Green Belt, the Howardian Hills AONB, Areas of High Landscape Value or Parks and Gardens of Historic interest. Elsewhere, new roadside services required by motorists for their journeys, or the expansion of existing services, will only be permitted on the major road network where:-

(i) There is a demonstrable need for such new services,

(ii) The development would not have a material adverse effect upon the character and appearance of the landscape,

(iii) The development would accord with the provisions of Policy AG1 regarding the best and most versatile agricultural land,

(v) The design of buildings and structures and the materials proposed relate satisfactorily to the setting,

(vi) The development will not have a material adverse impact on the character or setting of local settlements or the amenity of existing residents, or upon nearby village shops,

(vii) The development will not have a material adverse effect upon highway safety or the free flow of traffic on the adjacent highway,

(viii) The development is accompanied by an integral landscaping scheme,

(ix) The development will not have an unduly adverse impact because of the amount, type and appearance of associated advertising and general illumination.







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